Fundamentally AI is a technology which imitates human intelligence to make machine process and respond any form of data while dedicated human efforts are reduced and the task is carried out synthetically by the machine but in a very humanly way. There are several applications of Artificial Intelligence and it can be distinguished under two heads- Type 1 & Type 2 based on its primary functions, applications and its learning stages.
Type 1- Functionality
Purely Reactive AI– The most fundamental form of AI where the machines perform based on the presently available data in the current situation using narrowed-down predefined tasks and cannot either form memories and use past experiences, nor assess the future implications. Computer games like Deep Blue, IBM’s chess-playing supercomputer and Google’s AlphaGo are classic and most sophisticated examples of reactive AI.
Limited Memory AI– As the name suggests, machines are capable of doing tasks but with limited memory to assess steps in the current situation as it uses data from its pre-fed history. Often cited example is the self-driving cars and chatbots trained through Machine Learning (ML).
Theory of Mind AI– This is perhaps most challenging and yet in its early development phases. This type of AI should be able to train machines to comprehend human emotions, thoughts, beliefs and expectations to imitate the same in order to become socially interactive.
Self-aware AI– This form of AI will have the machines understand and have consciousness. This is in corollary to theory of mind AI. These machines will be highly self-aware and can take decisions based on that judgement. Today humans may be far from creating such elevated form of AI but AI researchers and developers like us at Sphinx Worldbiz are dedicated to this cause aiming to make this dream a near future reality.
Type 2- Learning Stages
Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI)/Narrow AI – Also known as Weak AI, at this stage machine can only perform very narrowed-down specific tasks without any ability to think or comprehend on its own. Most common examples of ANI are Apple’s Siri, Amazon’s Alexa, humanoid Sophia, RankBrain, Alpha Go, etc. This will not be wrong to say that all the AI based inventions made till date are functionally at Narrow learning stage and even then are hugely benefiting businesses and industries.
Artificial General Intelligence (AGI)/General AI– Also known as Strong AI or Deep AI, this allows machines to think as wide, as much as humans can. Although this is futuristic scenario but according to many experts this is absolutely possible considering years of research has been dedicated to it.
Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI)/ Super Intelligence– This is a stage where machines and computers surpass human intelligence and take them over. It is not a reality as of today but a highly speculative one as a lot of experts are divided between positive and negative aspects of the same.